Day by day water level is depleting due to water intensive agricultural practices, encroachment for development, whether pattern, climatic conditions and lack of participation of local governance, which affecting the livelihood of the people. So we should focus to conserve the water and use it sustainably. People should have access of sufficient and safe water for purpose of drinking, hygiene and for productive use. For conservation of water and to increase the water table of the area, local governance should focus on sustainable water conservation through watershed development, river basin management and by introducing various structures.
Participatory watershed development
In our area we have implemented two watershed development project in Waghdara and Sarati village of Maregaon block of Yavatmal district. In these villages initially we made the plan from ridge to valley. We have completed most of the work as, CCT, SCT, Diversion drain, plantation, earthen dam, cement plugs, gabion structures, loose boulder structures, graded bunding, stone bunding, low cost well cum recharge pit. Due to such ridge to valley work water level and moisture conservation raised and increase the protective irrigation and ultimately farmers income.
Nala Deepening and widening
It is an eco-friendly and low cost water harvesting structure builds to harvest rain water below ground level. In each and every village there are nalas (Stream), which need deepening and widening. In our area we have completed such nala deepening and widening work and farmers are benefited due to increase in water level of their wells. In this structure we can work as below:
- Select stream of minimum length of 1000 M from emerge to junction
- Excavate in soccer shape to minimize siltation process
- Construct underground Bund with black soil at every 1000 M to minimize underground seepage.
Benefits due to this model
- Low cost and eco-friendly water harvesting structure.
- Recharging ground water tables in 300 MM rainfall..
- Reducing water logging problem of nearby land.
- Effectively solved drinking water problem.
Desilting of Irrigation Tanks
In our area we have performed the survey and collected the first hand information of various irrigation tanks by expert. Farmers are interested in irrigation, but due to some technical reasons irrigation tanks are not functioning. We carried out a survey of the govt irrigation tanks and its water distribution. Our major findings were as water management committees are defunct and tanks are silted, incomplete construction of the main and miner canals and are silted. There are so many irrigation tanks in the area which have higher capacity of irrigation but actual irrigation is very low because of siltation. There is tremendous scope to improve the capacity of the tank to increase irrigation area by liasoning with other agencies and government Department. So last two years Gramsabhas are desilting the irrigation tanks and putting that silt in farms of farmers from their own expenses.
Diversion based Irrigation (PHAD irrigation)
Constructed 12 phad irrigation structures and benefited 56 households. Promoted this activity in remote area with poor farmers. Protective irrigation increased in the area without use of any electric equipment’s and also increased yield of agri produce with increase in moisture percentages. There are various sites for PHAD irrigation which needs to be developed for the irrigation.
Low cost well cum recharge pit
In our tribal area there are many potential sites where low cost well can be developed and water can be lifted through diesel pumps for protective irrigation. Water can also be used for the rabbi crops as wheat and chana. In many villages of GSMT as Rampur, Awalgaon, Khekadvai have developed such low cost well and farmers are using those wells. This activity will results in minimizing soil erosion as well as performed in-situ water conservation. 40 low cost well constructed so the in situ moisture increased and farmers used this water for protective irrigation. Due to this low cost well, yield is increased by 1.5 quintals per acre.
170 Farmers have constructed the farm ponds in their farms and used stored water for protective irrigation and due to farm ponds yield of cotton is increased of the farmer.
Cement Nala Bund
We have selected the 152 sites for the cement nala bund and constructed these bunds in individual and public places. Due to these CNB Water level increased in nearby wells, bore wells. Farmers used CNB water for irrigation and some rabbi area is also increased
Micro Irrigation Devices- sprinklers and drips
Effective irrigation facilities shall be created by linking Drip or sprinklers irrigation devices through its effective use. All target beneficiaries of WHS created in the project shall be utilized this micro irrigation system. This will save water losses or soil degradation due to flood irrigation. So we promoted many farmers to use these devices and saved the water for more irrigation.